Language and Culture
Language is a supply of conversation with other contributors of society. It is the reflection of the subculture to which it belongs. Salient traits of the way of life may be inferred with the near have a look at of its language. It is the source to transfer the diverse elements of the ideology. "Every act of language whether it's miles written or spoken is a announcement about the position of its creator inside the social shape in a given subculture" (Tabouret, 1985). Many linguists and sociologists thinking about the importance of language in interpreting the cultural values have theorized the structure, capabilities, and functions of language. Knowledge of language structure, its characteristic, and functions enables us to apprehend verbal exchange. It makes simpler for the listener to recognise what's taking place in the speaker's mind. Parpalea (2011) states that communication can not achieve success except the utterance is observed by sure ideas of language function. For the success in communication competencies, the clean concept of the language features is important (Brown, 2007). The variety of features varies from linguist to linguist regarding his studies and research but, I actually have constrained my research to referential, ideational, and interpersonal features of language. Jakobson states six functions of language i.E. The referential, poetic, emotive, conative, metalingual, and phatic feature. He explains that context is called referent and interprets this function in methods i.E. It pertains to the component "spoken of" or is associated with an detail whose reality cost is being affirmed. The second utility of referential feature is extra critical in which a statement is made that could be both real or fake. The nature of our regular language is dialogic as absolutely everyone's contributions are orientated in the direction of different speakers (Bakhtin, 1986). Therefore in the referential feature of language, a few information is conveyed to the interlocutor.
Halliday stated that language is "that means capacity". "It is creature and author of human society" (Halliday, 2002). He enunciates three functional levels of language i.E. Ideational, interpersonal, and textual characteristic. The first one is ideational wherein the speaker expresses his thoughts and studies. This function is all about the conceptualizing manner in our intellectual activities. It facilitates us to apprehend what is going on all around us. It is likewise known as the experiential feature. The second feature i.E. Interpersonal is employed when we establish and preserve social relationships. Language is on the whole a social phenomenon, so aside from facilitating in conversation it enables in projecting the speaker inside the favored manner. The third function, textual function fuses the interpersonal and ideational function-primarily based language to create textual content. From the above dialogue, we examine that the language is in no way purposeless; it's far usually carrying a purpose or function in it. The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930), but, gave a brand new path to the language studies and argued that we ought to pay greater attention to the social situations which make certain language structures feasible. While analyzing the dynamics of strength through language he coined the phrases, "cultural duplicate", "habitus", and "symbolic violence". He states that language isn't always handiest a supply of communication but additionally a tool to sustain the power shape. The structure of language is generally related to the social popularity of the speaker. The lingual habit ingrained inside the individuals of society determines the preset movement or reaction in a positive situation. Moreover, it makes a decision who will communicate, concentrate, Interrupt, enquire, or argue etc. Language serves as one of the mechanisms used for the transmission of cultural values from one era to the alternative. The "cultural replica" ends in the "social reproduction" i.E. Every time the present cultural values are transferred to the new era; the norms of society are exceeded down as nicely. The hidden schedule of the dominant class is transferred from technology to technology thru language. Socially humans are educated to adopt specific linguistic behavior and inclinations. These competencies and inclinations are named "habitus" with the aid of Pierre Bourdieu. He states that humans analyze them thru the method of imitation. Language practices are tamed in the very identical manner wherein the verbal exchange isn't always deliberately based. Due to this attribute of language, it can be categorised as a shape of "symbolic violence". Through language, the norms and values of the dominant group are unconsciously imposed upon the subordinate institution and with none physical violence. Slavoj Zizek (2008) additionally states that "symbolic violence is positioned in the signification of language itself. The ways we speak to each other maintain relations of domination".